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Full text of "Chickamauga"

NATIONAL MILITARY PARK 







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DOCUMENTS 
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^ • • TENNESSEE ••* • • GEORGIA • * • 







The Georgia Stale Memorial on Chickamauga Battlefield 



Contents 

Page 

jl^j^Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 

Military Park 3 

The Civil War in the West 4 

r 

The Importance of Chattanooga in the War . 6 

The Campaign for Chattanooga 7 

The Battle of Chickamauga 9 

The Siege of Chattanooga 11 

The Battle of Chattanooga 12 

The Western Campaign after Chattanooga . 13 



THE COVER 

A Confederate battery position on Missionary 
Ridge. On November 25, 1863, the Federals as- 
saulted Missionary Ridge; after severe fighting, the 
Confederates withdrew to Ringgold and then to 
Dalton. The Chattanooga Campaign thus ended 
in a Union victory 




1940 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Harold L. Ickes, Secretary 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE ■ Newton B. Drury, Director 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price 10 cents 



Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 

Military Park 



On September 19, 1895, Adlai E. Stevenson, 
Vice President of the United States, spoke to a 
group of people gathered to dedicate the Chick- 
amauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. 
Mr. Stevenson said, ". . . Today, by Act of the 
Congress of the United States, the Chickamauga- 
Chattanooga National Military Park is forever set 
apart from all common uses; solemnly dedicated 
for all the ages — to all the American people . . ." 
The park dedicated at that time has since grown 
to be the largest of our national military park 
areas. It contains parts of the battlefields of 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Civil War en- 
gagements severely contested in the latter part of 
1863. From its inception in 1890, when Congress 
established the area as a national military park, 
the park has represented a cooperative effort of 



Confederate and Union supporters. This closeh" 
paralleled the growth of Chattanooga following 
the Civil War, when large numbers of northerners 
and southerners moved to the growing industrial 
city. Today, the statue of reconciliation surmount- 
ing the New York monument on Lookout Moun- 
tain, depicts a Union soldier clasping the hand of a 
Confederate and seems to symbolize a reality 
carried out both in the park and community 
growth. 

Just as the park development represented both 
Confederate and Union achievement, so did the 
battles which it commemorates represent dual 
measures of success for the participants. The Con- 
federate victory at Chickamauga, perhaps its 
greatest success in the West, gave new hope to the 
South. But at Chattanooga, Union forces blasted 



One may obtain an aerial view of the Moccasin Bend oj the Tennessee River jrom Point Park on Lookout Alountain, as well as a 

panorama of the battlefields surrounding Chattanooga 




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Chattanooga at the time oj the war was a sprawling village. This 

(Signal Corps, 

this hope and permanently secured control of the 
strategic town. This battle virtually completed 
the Union occupation of the Mississippi Valley, 
cut the communications of the Confederate armies 
in the West from those in the East, and opened the 
way for the capture of Atlanta and the March to 
the Sea. 

The various units of the park, covering 8,500 
acres and including the battlefields of Chicka- 
mauga, Orchard Knob, Lookout Mountain, and 
Missionary Ridge, are within easy access of Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. The Chattanooga National Ceme- 
tery, established by order of Major General 
Thomas in 1863, is close to the center of the city. 
Visitors are urged to go to Point Park on Lookout 
Mountain as soon as possible after their arrival in 
Chattanooga. From the Adolph S. Ochs Observa- 
tory and Museum there, all the battlefields can be 
viewed and complete orientation obtained. An 
attendant is on duty to assist the visitor. At the 
northern entrance of the Chickamauga battle- 
field is the administration building of the park, 



view made in 7863 shows Lookout Mountain in the background. 
U. S. Army) 

which also houses the library and museum, devoted 
principally to Civil War materials. Park em- 
ployees here are ready to extend every courtesy 
and assistance to the visitor. 

The Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 
Military Park, in addition to its historic interest, 
possesses considerable scenic attraction. The views 
from Point Park and Signal Point are exceptionally 
picturesque. Both in the Chickamauga and Look- 
out Mountain areas, the visitor will find numerous 
trails and bridle paths for his use and enjoyment. 

All communications pertaining to this area 
should be addressed to the Superintendent, Chicka- 
mauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, 
Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. ' 

The Civil War in the West 

The Civil War in the West was motivated by 
two major plans of the Union forces. One was to 
drive a wedge through the Confederacy along the 
Mississippi River. The river offered a natural 




The Federal Army built this trestle bridge across the Tennessee River during the Chattanooga campaign. (Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 



avenue of transportation and supply. Union con- 
trol of it would virtually split the Confederacy and 
prevent the reinforcement and supply of the armies 
east of the river by those west of it. 

The second objective was to drive another wedge 
through the Confederacy along the railroads 
through Chattanooga and to the Atlantic Ocean. 
As Vicksburg proved to be the focus for the Union 
drive along the Mississippi, Chattanooga, located 
at a gap in the Cumberland Mountains, became 
the focal point of the drive to the southeast. 

Early in the war, the Confederate forces west of 
the Alleghenies had established a defensive line in 
Kentucky and Missouri. The failure of these 
States to secede and early Union victories forced a 
withdrawal to the Tennessee border. Here, where 
the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers flow into 
Kentucky, the Confederate forces were assembled 
to resist and to advance up the rivers. 

On February 6, 1862, Union gunboats which 
had moved up the Tennessee River from the Ohio, 
attacked Fort Henry and captured it. A week 



later a combined naval and land force began an 
attack on Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland. 
After a severely fought battle, the fort surrendered. 

Fort Donelson opened the way to the capture of 
Nashville. It also called the Nation's attention to 
Ulysses S. Grant, the leader of the victorious 
forces. From Fort Donelson to the capture of 
Chattanooga, nearly 2 years later, the fortunes of 
the Union Armies in the West closely paralleled 
those of Grant. 

Following the victory at Fort Donelson, the 
Union troops moved up the Tennessee River to 
Pittsburg Landing. The Confederates held Cor- 
inth, Miss., at the junction of the Mobile & Ohio 
and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads. Ad- 
vancing from this point, the Confederates struck 
the Union Army on April 6 in the Battle of Shiloh 
and drove them back toward the river. Before 
victory could be attained, however. Union rein- 
forcements arrived, and on the following day the 
Confederates were driven back. Shiloh cost the 
Confederacy one of its ablest leaders. Gen. Albert 



Sidney Johnston, who was mortally wounded in 
the first day of the battle. Both South and North 
were appalled by the tremendous losses, which gave 
them a real appreciation of the meaning of war. 

Union victories along the Mississippi followed. 
In the same month New Orleans was captured, 
and, in June, Memphis fell. The one remaining 
obstacle to complete Union control of the Missis- 
sippi was Vicksburg. On July 4, 1863, the Con- 
federates surrendered this important stronghold. 

Meanwhile, Union forces had taken Corinth and 
had begun a slow advance on Chattanooga along 
the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. The Con- 
federates then assumed the offensive and moved 
into Kentucky. The campaign was unsuccessful, 
but the Union forces were diverted from their ad- 
vance on Chattanooga. While the Confederates 
left Kentucky for Chattanooga and then moved to 
Murfreesboro, Tenn., the Union forces assembled 
at Nashville. On the last day of December 1862 
and the first two days of 1863 the battle of Stones 
River, or Murfreesboro, was fought, forcing the 
Confederate Army to fall back to Tullahoma, 
Tenn. The Union Army then occupied Murfrees- 
boro. 



The Importance of Chattanooga in 
the War 

To THE military strategists, Chattanooga appeared 
to be a very important point. Located where the 
Tennessee River passed through the Cumberland 
Mountains, forming gaps, it offered an opportunity 
for getting an army into the seaboard States be- 
yond. Furthermore, Chattanooga was an impor- 
tant railroad center. Lines connected Chatta- 
nooga with Nashville, Memphis, Atlanta, and 
Knoxville, and at those points provided connec- 
tions all over the South. Union control of this 
point would break an important link in the supply 
system of the Confederacy. 

Perhaps of equal importance, since political rea- 
sons often influenced military movements, was one 
nourished in Washington. Chattanooga was in east 
Tennessee; east Tennessee was strongly loyal to the 
Union. Therefore, concluded the political leaders, 
the loyalty of these people must be supported by 
military encouragement. 

Headquarters Camp, Federal Army of the Cumberland, at Chicka- 
mauga. (Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 




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The Campaign for Chattanooga 

MuRFREESBORO, held by the Union forces since the 
Confederate retreat of January 3, 1863, lay on the 
Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad about 110 
miles northwest of Chattanooga. Here the Union 
Army spent the winter, recovering from the severe 
losses at Stones River. The Confederates had occu- 
pied Tullahoma on the same railroad and south- 
east of Murfreesboro. The Union commander, 
Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans, methodically pre- 
pared for an advance on the Confederates, com- 
manded by Gen. Braxton Bragg. He reorganized 
the Federal forces into three corps: The 14th, com- 
manded by Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas; the 
20th, commanded by Maj. Gen. Alexander Mc- 
Cook; and the 21st, under Maj. Gen. Thomas L. 
Crittenden. This entire force was designated the 
Army of the Cumberland. 

Late in June 1863 the Union Army advanced. 
By skillful maneuvering against the Confederate 
flanks, the Union Army forced the Confederates 
out of Tullahoma and across the Tennessee River 
to Chattanooga. The next problem of the Union 
forces was to cross the Tennessee River. Moving 
three brigades along the river banks north of Chat- 
tanooga, the Union commander created the im- 
pression that he would attempt to cross in that 
locality. Meanwhile, the major portion of his army 
was moved to the south of Chattanooga, and here, 
with little Confederate opposition, a crossing was 
made. 

Rosecrans' plan to take Chattanooga was to ma- 
neuver to the south of the town and break the rail- 
way to Atlanta, thereby cutting the main line of 
supply of the Confederates. If these communica- 
tions could not be broken, it was possible that a 
threatening movement against them would force 
the Confederates out of Chattanooga where they 
could be met on equal terms. 

Keeping his army divided, Rosecrans pushed one 
corps up the valley toward Chattanooga. The 
others moved toward Lookout Mountain, south of 
Chattanooga. But General Bragg was not fooled. 
Learning of the approach of the Union forces south 
of Chattanooga, he abandoned the town and took 
his army to LaFayette, about 30 miles south of 
Chattanooga and just east of Lookout Mountain. 
Here the Confederates could guard the railway to 
Atlanta and be in position to strike any of the three 
Union corps. 




Early, on the morning of November 25, 7863, a Union detachment 
planted the Stars and Stripes on Lookout Mountain. The fast 
man up is said to have been Capt. John Wilson, Co. C, 8th Ken- 
tucky Infantry. In the picture he is holding the flag. The other 
men are, right to left, Sgt. James Wood, Pvt. William Witt, Sgt. 
Harry H. Davis, Pvt. Joseph Bradley, and Sgt. Joseph Wagers 

Meanwhile, the Federal corps under Crittenden, 
which had moved directly on Chattanooga, occu- 
pied the town and headed south after the retiring 
Confederate forces. The Union forces were now in 
a precarious position. Coming across Lookout 
Mountain, Thomas' Corps was about 20 miles 
south of Crittenden. McCook's Corps was fully 40 
miles away. To the east of these forces lay the 
Confederate Army, strategically situated for strik- 
ing each of the separated corps. 

General Bragg then issued orders for attacks on 
two corps of the divided Union Army, but failure 



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Lee and Goidum Mill was the scene of some of the action on the 

first dav of the Battle of Chickamauga. This photograph was 

made soon after the battle. (Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 



Gen. Ulysses S. Grant on Lookout Mountain, 1863. Gran 
Gen. Joseph Hooker, victor in the Battle of Lookout Mi 



A part of Chickamauga Battlefield as it appeared after the fight. 
(Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 

of his subordinates to carry out the commands 
caused the opportunity to be lost. Finally, aware 
of the danger, the Union forces were ordered to 
unite. It was none too soon, as Bragg began to 
move his forces northward to strike at Crittenden's 
Corps, in position on Chickamauga Creek. Success 
of this attack would cut off the entire Union force 
from Chattanooga. 

On September 17 and 18 there took place a race 
for position, the Union forces desperately pushing 
northward in an endeavor to unite before the Con- 
federates could attack and secure the first advantage. 



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he figure in the lower left corner. (Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 
•in, ivilh his staff. Hooker is the si.xth figure from the right 



.ifter the fall of Chattanooga, supplies were brought to the Union 

.Irmy by steamboats. It was necessary to warp the boats up the 

river through rapids. (Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 





Headquarters of Union General William Rosecrans in Chattanooga 
during the siege. (Signal Corps, U. S. Army) 

The Battle of Chickamauga 

On the afternoon of September 18, 1863, parts of 
the Confederate Army reached the banks of Chick- 
amauga Creek. At Reed's Bridge and at Alexan- 
der's Bridge Union cavalry and mounted infantry 
had arrived to prevent the Confederates from cross- 
ing. The first skirmishing of the battle took place 
at Reed's Bridge, where efforts to stop the Confed- 
erates were unsuccessful. At Alexander's Bridge 
the Confederates were stopped but pushed down- 
stream and crossed at one of the numerous fords. 



Chickamauga-Chattanooga Campaign — June 2j to November 2^, i86j 



CONFEDERATES, DEFEATED 
IN BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA 
NOVEMBER 25, RETREAT TO 
DALTON, GEORGIA. 




FEDERALS OUTFLANKED IN 
BATTLE OF CHICKAMAU6A 
RETIRE INTO CHATTANOOGA 
WHERE THEY ARE BESIEGED 
MANY WEEKS. 



GEORGIA 



Throughout the evening Confederate troops were 
arriving at the creek, some crossing and encamping 
on the west side, others preparing to cross in the 
morning. 

Meanwhile the Union forces to the west of the 
creek were also marching northward, and by day- 
light had joined together. From Thomas' Corps 
on the left of the Union position to Crittenden's 
Corps at Lee and Gordon's Mill the Union forces 
now held a continuous line. 

About 7:30 on the morning of the 19th, a Union 
brigade in Thomas' Corps attacked the cavalry of 
the Confederates, which was in position on their 
right. Reinforcements were ordered up by both 
armies, and gradually the battle lines became ex- 
tended from Jay's Mill southward toward Lee and 
Gordon's Mill. In the dense woods and the few 
open fields the fighting raged all day. Only the 
trees furnished protection to the soldiers as they 
pushed forward and then fell back. By nightfall 
the Confederates had driven up close to the 
LaFayette Road, but efforts to secure it had failed. 



Union forces had clung desperately to their roads 
to Chattanooga. 

Both commanders were busy on the 19th with 
the placement of their troops. The Confederate 
line was established parallel with the LaFayette 
Road, the left resting on Chickamauga Creek and 
the right reaching beyond the Reed's Bridge Road. 
Cavalry troops guarded both flanks. The army had 
been divided into two wings, the right commanded 
by Gen. Leonidas Polk, and the left by Gen. James 
Longstreet, who had just arrived from Virginia. 
The Union forces were drawn up in a more com- 
pact line, not far away. Thomas' Corps was on the 
left, just east of Kelly Field; McCook's Corps was 
in the center, facing the LaFayette Road; while 
Crittenden held the right, with his forces slightly 
withdrawn. Thomas' forces had strengthened their 
position by erecting log breastworks. 

General Bragg's orders for the 20th were for an 
attack to be started at daylight by General Polk's 
right division and to be taken up by successive 
divisions to the left. Bragg hoped to outflank the 



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Union left and cut off the army from Chattanooga. 
The Confederate attack did not get started until 
9:30 a. m. when the extreme Union left was 
attacked. The charges against the Union breast- 
works were repulsed with heavy losses, but two 
Confederate brigades were threatening to outflank 
the left wing. In response to Thomas' call for rein- 
forcements, General Rosecrans was shifting forces 
from the right and center to the left. Under the 
impression that Brannan's division had been moved 
from the Union center to reinforce the left, Rose- 
crans ordered General Wood's division to consoli- 
date with Reynold's division in order to keep the 
line intact. But Wood's division was separated 
from that of Reynolds by Brannan's, still in position 
in the Union center. In carrying out Rosecrans' 
order. Wood moved his division from the front line 
and passed to the rear of Brannan, leaving a gap 
in the Union line. Coincident with Wood's move- 
ment, the Confederate attack developed. Long- 
street's troops made the most of their opportunity 
and drove through the gap. The right of the Fed- 
eral line and part of the center were pushed from 
the field. Rosecrans, McCook, and Crittenden 
were caught in the break and fled to Chattanooga. 
Thomas then assumed command of all the North- 
ern forces on the field. 

The remaining Union troops were now faced 
with a flanking movement on their right as well as 
on the left. Thomas drew in his line and with the 
assistance of reserve troops that had reached the 
field, he took up a new position on Snodgrass Hill. 
Longstreet's forces made several desperate efforts 
to take this position. The Union troops held, how- 
ever, until Thomas could pull his other forces from 
the field and send them through McFarland Gap 
to Rossville. The forces at Snodgrass Hill then 
followed, and the Confederate troops held the field. 

The battle had been a costly one to both sides. 
Of the 66,000 Confederates engaged, approxi- 
mately 18,000 were among the killed, wounded, 
and missing. The Union forces lost 16,000 out of 
58,000 men engaged. 

The Siege of Chattanooga 

Following the retreat of the Union forces into 
Chattanooga, General Bragg decided to adopt 
siege tactics to force the surrender of the town. The 
location of Chattanooga in a bend of the Tennessee 
River and its approaches covered by mountains and 



hills were favorable to these methods. General 
Bragg placed troops on Lookout Mountain from its 
top down to the Tennessee River. Other forces 
were placed on Missionary Ridge from Rossville 
Gap northward to the end of Missionary Ridge 
and from there to the Tennessee River north of 
Chattanooga. Connecting these major dispositions 
was a line across Chattanooga Valley from Lookout 
Mountain to Missionary Ridge. The only Union 
connection with Bridgeport, Ala., its supply base on 
the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, was 
across the Tennessee River, then across Walden's 
Ridge by rough wagon road and down the Se- 
quatchie Valley. Confederate cavalry troops 
operated effectively against this line, preventing 
necessary food supplies from reaching the Union 
Army. Within a month starvation threatened the 
forces in Chattanooga. 

Aware of the critical situation. Union authorities 
in Washington ordered troops to the relief of the 
town. From the Army of the Potomac in Virginia, 
two corps, under Major General Hooker, were sent. 
The Army of the Tennessee under Maj. Gen. Wil- 
liam T. Sherman was also ordered to Chattanooga. 
To repFace Rosecrans as leader of the Army of the 
Cumberland, Maj. Gen. George Thomas was 
chosen. Grant, now in command of all the Union 
forces in the West, arrived in October to direct the 
efforts to drive the Confederates away. 

Soon after reaching Chattanooga, Grant ap- 
proved a carefully prepared plan to open a new 
line of supplies. At 3 a. m., on October 27, 1863, 
1,500 men on pontoons floated down the river from 
Chattanooga, passed the Confederate batteries on 
Lookout Mountain under cover of darkness, and 
drifted to the west bank of the river at Brown's 
Ferry. The force quickly disembarked, drove in 
the Confederate pickets, and with the cooperation 
of a force that had moved across the neck of land on 
Moccasin Bend, constructed a pontoon bridge. 
The next day supplies began coming in over the 
new line. 

In the meanwhile. Hooker had been ordered to 
advance from Bridgeport to guard the line of com- 
munications just opened. His forces arrived in the 
vicinity of Brown's Ferry on October 28. At mid- 
night of the same day a Confederate force attacked 
part of these Union troops at Wauhatchie in an 
effort to gain control of the line of communications. 
The attack failed, and the Union forces kept their 
line open. With supplies now available. Grant 



I I 




I u'iL iij inudeni C/ldllanmiga jroin a Confederate battery posilwn on Lookout Mountain 



spent the next few weeks equipping the Army of 
the Cumberland and waiting for the arrival of 
Sherman's army. 

The Battle of Chattanooga 

On November 21, Sherman's army had reached 
Chattanooga. Moving northward around Stringer's 
Ridge, the army camped in a concealed position, 
ready to move at the first orders to North Chicka- 
mauga Creek. Grant's plans were for Sherman to 
launch pontoons there, float down the Tennessee 
River, and cross the river at the mouth of Chicka- 
mauga Creek. Then Sherman was to occupy the 
north end of Missionary Ridge, turn southward, 
and, with Thomas' forces joining on the right, 
drive the Confederates away from the railroad line 
to Atlanta. 

While Sherman was planning this movement on 
November 23, Grant ordered Thomas to advance 



on Orchard Knob, an advance position of the Con- 
federates in front of Missionary Ridge, in order to 
test the strength of the Confederates. The position 
was assaulted and carried. Grant then moved his 
field headquarters to this position. 

Meanwhile, Thomas had been urging that a 
demonstration be made against the Confederate 
left on Lookout Mountain. This position had been 
weakened when Longstreet's forces had been de- 
tached and sent to Knoxville. Grant approved 
Thomas' plan, and Major General Hooker was 
ordered to carry it out. On the morning of Novem- 
ber 24, Hooker's forces moved up the western 
slopes of the mountain from Lookout Creek. Grad- 
ually the small Confederate force was driven back 
toward the Cravens house, on a bench of the moun- 
tain 500 feet from the top. Here, where the Con- 
federates had the protection of earthworks, the 
fighting was heaviest. The Confederates were 



12 



finally dislodged from this position and retreated to 
a new line a quarter of a mile back. During the 
evening, Bragg, realizing the danger that his troops 
on the mountain and in the valley now faced, 
ordered their withdrawal to Missionary Ridge. 
Early on the morning of the 25th, a Union detach- 
ment planted the Stars and Stripes on the top of 
the mountain. 

On the Confederate right wing. Grant's plan 
miscarried. Sherman, successfully crossing the 
river, occupied a hill north of the position. Instead 
of being the north end of a continuous ridge, as it 
had appeared to the Union strategists a few days 
before, the hill was separated from the main ridge 
by a deep gap. On the other side were the Con- 
federates, guarding the tunnel which passes through 
the ridge at that point. Sherman made no attempt 
to carry that position that day. 

Still determined to outflank the Confederate posi- 
tion, Grant's orders for the 25th were for Sherman 
to assault the north end of the ridge. Hooker, 
successful at Lookout Mountain, was to move 
across the valley and up the ridge through Ross- 
ville Gap on the left flank of the Confederates. 
Thomas' forces in the center were not ordered to 
move until Hooker had reached Rossville. 

At 7 a. m. Sherman began his attacks on the 
north end of Missionary Ridge. Throughout the 
day the Confederates successfully resisted them. 
Meanwhile, Hooker had been delayed in his ad- 
vance on Rossville. In order to draw off Con- 
federate troops from the flanks and aid Sherman 
and Hooker, Grant then ordered Thomas' men 
to take the Confederate rifle pits at the base of 
Missionary Ridge. Moving out of their positions 
on a two-and-a-half-mile front, the Army of the 
Cumberland took the rifle pits. Here the troops 
were subjected to a severe artillery fire, and with 
the Confederates in front of them fleeing up the 
slopes of the ridge, the Union forces instinctively 
pursued. The Confederate center was broken and 
fell back from the ridge. In the meantime. Hooker 
had advanced through Rossville Gap and had 
assisted in driving the Confederates oflf. The 
Confederate forces on the right wing, withdrawn 
after dark, covered the retreat of the Confederates 
to Ringgold. Here the last fighting of the cam- 
paign took place, after which the Union troops 
returned to Chattanooga. The Confederates took 
up a strong defensive position near Dalton, Ga., 
and went into winter quarters. 



The Western Campaign After 
Chattanooga 

While the Chattanooga campaign was in progress, 
a Union force held Knoxville, Tenn. On Novem- 
ber 4 Longstreet was sent to take the town. On 
November 29 the Union works were attacked by 
Longstreet, but were successfully held. The Con- 
federates then retreated toward Bristol and left 
virtually all of Tennessee in Union hands. 

Following the battle of Chattanooga, Grant was 
placed in command of all the Union Armies. 
Sherman succeeded Grant as commander of the 
Union forces in the West. General Bragg, the 
Confederate commander, was replaced by Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston. During the winter of 1 863-64, 
Sherman prepared for an advance into Georgia. 
He assembled 100,000 men and large quantities of 
supplies. Opposing this force was an army of 
about 50,000. 

Advancing from Chattanooga on May 6, 1864, 
the Union forces maneuvered the smaller Con- 
federate Army out of Dalton by a flank movement 
and thereafter Sherman compelled Johnston to 
keep his army on the defensive and by a series of 
flanking movements pushed him from one position 
to another. By July 17, when Gen. John B. Hood 
succeeded Johnston, the Union forces were close 
to Atlanta. Here the Confederates assumed the 
offensive. In a series of battles around Atlanta, 
the Confederates lost heavily and on September 
2 were forced to leave the city to the Union troops. 

Hood then moved northward to recover Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky, if possible, and to force 
Sherman to give up Atlanta by attacking his lines 
of communications northward. Sherman divided 
his forces and sent one portion under Thomas to 
stop Hood. The Confederate and Union troops 
met at Franklin on November 30 and on December 
15 at Nashville. In the latter engagement the 
Confederate forces were defeated in one of the 
most decisive engagements of the war. 

On November 16 Sherman left Atlanta to carry 
out a plan to march to Savannah, on the Atlantic 
Ocean. By destroying all sources of supplies that 
an army needs, Sherman hoped to bring the war 
to an end. On December 21 he captured Savan- 
nah, then turned north through the Carolinas. 
On April 26, 1864, 2 weeks after Appomattox 
Court House, the Army of Tennessee surrendered 
to Sherman. 



13 




New York State Memorial at Point Park, Lookout Mountain 
Wisconsin State Memorial at Chickamauga 



House where the Confederates broke the Federal line 
The Wilder Memorial at Chickamauga 





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Points of 
Interest 
in the 
Park 




Balanced Rock — Point Park 
National Park Service Administration Building at Chickamauga Park 




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SI GNAjr POINT 
PARK 




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UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIES 



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UNION -v 
STATION^ 




SHERMAN.^^.RESERVATION 



5//^. — ^delong reservation 



CHATJTA NOOG/A 



\W //TERMmAL- v/ NATIONAL 

'^// //^'s^T^ro'-N \( CEMETERY 



OWA MONUMENT 



CHICKAMAUGAand CHATTANOOGA 

NATIONAL MILITARY PARK 

TENNESSEE 8 GEORGIA 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 




5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE